Heavy cavalry wore white coats and hats as for the infantry and were armed with a heavy sword and carbine. At Hohenfriedberg the Prussian king Frederick II was thirty-three years old and already a seasoned commander, having led his men in battle at Mollwitz in 1741 and Chotusitz a year later. Heavy fire was exchanged as the Austrians were pushed back by Frederick’s infantry line.In the meantime on the Prussian left there were some critical moments for Frederick’s army.
Frederick found in Colonel von Zieten the ideal officer to implement the improvements in the hussar regiments. Hungarian Hussars provided the light cavalry arm. Frederick later wrote sardonically that German armies seemed to be incapable of movement without such musical accompaniment.Map of the Battle of Hohenfriedberg 4th June 1745 in the Second Silesian War: map by John FawkesOn the evening of 3rd June 1745 the Austrians and Saxons encamped over a large area near Hohenfriedberg covering a line of some 4 miles. Officers whose soldiers were considered by Frederick not to be of a sufficient standard were subjected to a public tongue lashing and in extreme cases dismissed on the spot.Charge of the Bayreuth Dragoons at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg 4th June 1745 in the Second Silesian War:The efficiency of the Prussian regiments at drill enabled them to move around the battlefield with a speed and manoeuvrability that no other European Army could equal.Heavy cavalry of the period comprised cuirassiers, whose troopers wore steel breastplates, and dragoons. Dragoons wore a light blue coat. Soldiers were released for key agricultural times such as sewing and harvesting. Oil on canvas. The Battle of Hohenfriedberg Account. Weapons were a heavy cavalry sword and single shot flintlock carbine.Charge of the Bayreuth Dragoons at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg 4th June 1745 in the Second Silesian WarThe light cavalry arm was provided by the Prussian Hussar regiments. But Frederick would have to fight 3 wars over 22 years with the Austro-Hungarian Empire for his prize.In the First Silesian War (1741 to 1742) Frederick defeated the Austrians at the battles of Mollwitz and Chotusitz and made peace in the Treaty of Breslau, leaving his allies France and Bavaria to fight against the Austrians.Frederick intended to re-enter the war against Austria when he considered the time to be right. The Prussian infantry advanced through the Saxon cannon and musket fire and routed the Saxon infantry.Dragoon No 5 Bayreuth: Battle of Hohenfriedberg 4th June 1745 in the Second Silesian War: picture by Adolph MenzelFrederick now turned to deal with the Austrian infantry, coming up on the right of the defeated Saxons around the village of Gϋnthersdorf. Regiments were reviewed on an annual basis by the King and woe betide the officers of any regiment that fell below the required standard of drill and performance.Charge of the Bayreuth Dragoons at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg 4th June 1745 in the Second Silesian WarThe Prussian Army established the technique of battlefield drill in the era of the musket. Frederick's Prussian army decisively defeated an Austrian army under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine on 4 June 1745 during the Second Silesian War. He also decided to march by night, concealing his movement, and thus surprise the Saxons.
The Prussian vanguard encountered this force; the resulting clash alerted the Saxons and prevented the complete surprise Frederick hoped for. Frederick had a very low opinion of his counterpart, saying of Prince Charles Alexander that "there will be some stupid mistakes."
The Saxon army had occupied these two hills the previous day with a small force. The invasion was made by way of Saxony in late August 1744. The noble families of Prussia were required to commit their sons to the army’s officer corps. Frederick's Prussian army decisively defeated an Austrian army under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine on 4 June 1745 during the Second Silesian War (part of the War of the Austrian Succession). In particular he re-organised and re-trained the Prussian Cavalry and Artillery. Headgear was the tricorne hat for line infantry and bearskin cap for grenadiers. In the autumn of 1743 the first all arms autumn manoeuvres were held.In 1744 Frederick re-entered the war, invading Bohemia to take advantage of the absence of Austrian troops on the Rhine fighting the French.
The main form of light cavalry were the regiments of hussars.
The Prussian Artillery was considerably more efficient at manoeuvring on the battle field. The Prussians who had still not crossed the Striegau to the north wheeled to the west and advanced through river crossings wherever they could find them, finding enough fords to accomplish this. The headgear was the tricorne hat.
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