The second test vehicle was pulled from the pad after three launch aborts.
Drew Pearson, "USA Second Class Power? It relates vehicle systems oper-ATION DURING FINAL COUNTDOWN PREPARATIONS THROUGH LIFT-OFF, AND INCLUDES THE ENTIRE FLIGHT PROGRAM TO SATELLITE SEPARATION IN ORBIT. The President announced that the United States, as part of its International Geophysical Year contributions, would attempt to launch a number of 21 pound satellites without the use of military missiles. It surprised Khrushchev and the Soviet leadership, who had tolerated Korolev's little satellite project only so long as it did not interfere with ICBM development. Incredibly, the R-7 might be ready before its payload. The first Atlas-Agena launch, of an Air Force Eisenshower announced that the USA would launch 10-kg satellites in 1958 without the use of military missiles. It surprised both the American and Soviet military establishments, who had not been convinced of the military usefulness of satellites. It managed 98 seconds of flight before breaking apart. During 1956 construction of the immense launch facilities at A 'civilian' IGY satellite could establish the legal basis for freedom of space without antagonizing the Soviets with a military mission. 375-376, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 2006 (Bowen, The Threshold of Space, p.10. Here are a group of rocket photos that you can use in classroom activities. Objectives of Project Vanguard were: to develop and procure a satellite-launching vehicle; to place at least one satellite in orbit around the earth during IGY; to accomplish one scientific experiment; and to track flight to demonstrate the satellite actually attained orbit.U.S.-IGY scientific satellite equipment, including a radio transmitter and instruments for measuring temperature, pressure, cosmic rays, and meteoric dust encounters, was tested above earth for the first time, as a rocket containing this equipment was fired by the Navy to a 126-mile altitude.President Eisenhower in a White House press release congratulated the Soviet scientists on SPUTNIK I. The project, named Vanguard, although organized in the Department of Defense under Navy management, would be completely removed from military significance.
The Vanguard rocket was designed as a three-stage vehicle. In the United States, the military services tabled competing proposals to launch a scientific satellite during the IGY. In August 1955 the Stewart Committee, having duly taken on the Pentagon's desire for the IGY effort not to affect either the Air Force Atlas ICBM or Army Jupiter IRBM programs, selected the Navy's Vanguard as the IGY satellite booster.
But there was a problem. In 1955, the United States announced plans to put a scientific satellite in orbit for the The Vanguard's second stage served for decades as the Able and Delta second stage for satellite launch vehicles.The first two flights of the Vanguard program, designated Investigation into the accident concluded that inadequate fuel tank pressure had allowed hot exhaust gases to back up into the injector head and destroy it, causing complete loss of engine thrust.
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