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history of deep space exploration




In 1965 this became a permanent facility, DSS 71.

By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The modernization also extended the useful range of communications for After the Voyager Uranus flyby, the DSN demonstrated the capability of combining signals from the radio astronomy antenna at Parkes, Australia, with the Network antennas at Tidbinbilla.

In 1969 the Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 spacecraft to Mars were in the same part of the sky and both in view of a DSN site at the same time, though not within the beamwidth of a single antenna.

The Challenger space shuttle has a special place in the world of space exploration. As the supported and planned missions became more numerous it became clear that a second network of stations was required.



The forerunner of the Deep Space Network was established in January 1958, when On December 3, 1958, JPL was transferred from the US Army to NASA and given responsibility for the design and execution of lunar and planetary exploration programs using remotely controlled spacecraft.



Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.Since ancient times, people around the world have studied the heavens and used their observations and explanations of astronomical phenomena for both religious and practical purposes.



At this time there was a substantial expansion of the number of antennas.To support the Apollo manned lunar-landing program NASA's This arrangement also provided redundancy and help in the case of emergencies.

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Translunar injection would then be before spacecraft rise at DSS 51 or 61. For example, the French satirist In order to translate these fictional images of space travel into reality, it was necessary to devise some practical means of countering the influence of Earth’s In 1929 Oberth published a second influential book, Although Tsiolkovsky, Goddard, and Oberth are recognized as the most influential of the first-generation space pioneers, others made contributions in the early decades of the 20th century.

The Robledo, Spain antenna discontinued its tracking of Pioneer 8 and began to search for the lost spacecraft.

During these minutes the lander activated itself.

Something had happened to the spacecrafi but no one knew just what.While the DSN was committed to support one Mariner at a time in a mission-critical phase, this situation presented one spacecraft approaching encounter and a second one with a serious and unknown problem. As Mars began to draw near towards the end of July, encounter operations began with Mariner 7 only five days behind Mariner 6.
For example, the Lunar Orbiter equipment at DSS 41 required the building of an extension to the control room, a photographic processing area and darkroom, and water de-mineralising equipment.One network of three stations was equipped for Surveyor, and another network dedicated to Lunar Orbiter. In April 1981, the launch of the Columbia space shuttle brought with it good tidings.


Originally, the participation of DSN 26m antennas during an Apollo Mission was to be limited to a backup role. The DSN was again hard pressed to service all its customers. Calculations showed, though, that a 26m antenna pattern centered on the landed Lunar Module would suffer a 9-to-12 db loss at the lunar horizon, making tracking and data acquisition of the orbiting Command Service Module difficult, perhaps impossible. Support was also needed for the Mariner 5 Venus mission, and for Pioneer 6-9 interplanetary spacecraft which kept operating long after their expected lifetimes.

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