That’s simple arithmetic, suitable for computers. If you imagine a random sheet of newspaper lying on that street, lineation is the printing on it, and the arrow shows the direction it reads. Geologists prefer to say that the lines show the contacts between different rock units. If you picture a street running straight down a hillside, the painted center line on the road is the dip direction and a painted crosswalk is the strike. (They could equally well represent meters, of course. If you imagine the sea rising, those lines show where the shoreline would be after every 20 feet of depth. The shapes of the hills and dales are depicted on the map by fine lines that are contours—lines of equal elevation.
The lines and the symbols condense a great deal of information that geologists have gathered through years of fieldwork.Lines on the map outline various rock units, or formations. The second letter might also be an age term, particularly in the Cenozoic, so that a unit of Oligocene sandstone would be labeled "Tos. Here's a small sample of a real geologic map. You can see the basic things discussed earlier—the shorelines, roads, towns, buildings and borders—in gray. This sample of a 1947 map from the USGS uses symbols to indicate the type of roads, significant buildings, power lines, and additional details. Let's have a look at them.You could have a geologic map without using colors, just lines and letter symbols in black and white. The shape of San Bruno Mountain is depicted by 200-foot contours, and a thicker contour marks the 1,000-foot level. Scale. Terrestrial sedimentary rocks use the same palette but add patterns. The contours are there too, in brown, plus the symbols for various water features in blue. )In this 1930 contour map from the U.S. Department of Commerce, you can see the roads, streams, railroads, place names, and other elements of any proper map. There are two traditions that arose in the late 1800s: the harmonious American standard and the more arbitrary International standard. Topography on Maps. Dip is how steeply the bed or foliation slopes downhill.
Contacts are shown by a fine line unless the contact is determined to be a fault, a discontinuity so sharp that it's clear something has moved there. All of that is on the map’s base. Lineation might be a set of folds, or a slickenside, or stretched-out mineral grains or similar feature. On the map, each symbol usually represents the average of many measurements. A unit consisting of Cretaceous shale might be marked "Ksh."
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