Disney & Cumming (1992) abolished the Alamirinae when they showed they were the 'missing' males of Termitoxeniinae, which were known only from females.Phorid flies are found worldwide, though the greatest variety of species is to be found in the The larvae emerge in 24 hours and feed for a period between 8 and 16 days, before crawling to a drier spot to pupate. Of the radial veins, only R1 and R4+5 are developed. Many species of phorid flies are specialist parasitoids of ants, but several species in the tropics are parasitoids of stingless bees. The phorid fly's egg-to-adult lifecycle can be as short as 14 days, but may take up to 37 days. The convex mesonotum is usually covered with hairs and rows of bristles. The shape varies from fusiform with inconspicuous projections on posterior segments to short, broad, and flattened with conspicuous dorsal and lateral plumose projections especially on the terminal segment. The legs have stout femora and the hind femora are often laterally compressed. (1995) Reply to Brown. The anal vein may reach the alar margin, or is greatly shortened or almost atrophied. The most well-known species is cosmopolitan Megaselia scalaris. Pupation occurs in the last larval skin which hardens and becomes reddish. The costa reaches only to the point of confluence of alar margins with veins R4+5 or R5. The subcosta is reduced. They have a characteristic reduced wing venation. The metapleuron may be entire or divided by a suture into two halves, and either with a few long bristles glabrous, or pubescent. Another vernacular name, coffin fly, refers to Conicera tibialis.
Journal of Natural History, 27, 1219–1221.Brown, B.V. (1995) Response to Disney. Crossveins are totally absent. (1992) Abolition of Alamirinae and ultimate rejection of Wasmann's theory of hermaphroditism in Termitoxeniinae (Diptera: Phoridae). Two rows of well developed bristles are present on the costa and almost at a right angle to each other. About 4,000 species are known in 230 genera. (2013) Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) reared from fungi in Benin. Segments VII and VIII of the male are more or less sclerotized in the genus The larva is small, rarely over 10.0 mm long and typically has 12 visible segments. The abdomen consists of six visible segments. Journal of Natural History, 29, 1081–1082.Disney, R.H.L., Kurina, O., Tedersoo, L. & Cakpo, Y. continue as a single vein to the end. An important taxonomic character is the precise location of the anterior spiracles on the pleura of the thorax. At 0.4 mm in length, the world's smallest fly i Other costal indices (compared to other wing measurements) are used in the taxonomy. Phorid flies can often be identified by their escape habit of running rapidly across a surface rather than taking to the wing. The ratio of first, second, and third sections of the costa is often a reliable specific character. R4 and R5 may merge into the alar margin separately or Bonner zoologische Beiträge, 43, 145–154.Brown, B.V. (1992) Generic revision of Phoridae of the Nearctic Region and phylogenetic classification of Phoridae, Sciadoceridae and Ironomyiidae (Diptera: Phoridea).
Journal of Natural History, 29, 259–264.Disney, R.H.L.
The colour is whitish, yellowish white, or grey. Segments VII to X comprise the genitalia of the male (hypopygium), and in the female the terminalia. Medial veins are represented by M1, M2, and M4. R4+5 may furcate at end.
Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 164, 1–144.Disney, R.H.L. Abdominal segment 2 has a dorsal pair of long, slender pupal respiratory horns. T. L. Carpenter and D. O. Chastain: "Facultative Myiasis by K. Komori, K. Hara, K.G.V. This behaviour is a source of one of their alternate names, scuttle fly. Smith, T. Oda, D. Karamine: "A case of lung myiasis caused by larvae of In some genera, segments VII to X in the female are highly sclerotized and extended into a tube ("ovipositor").
(1993) Mosaic evolution and outgroup comparisons. The strong, well developed radial (R) veins end in the costa about halfway along the wing. The wings are clear or tinged only rarely with markings. & Cumming, M.S. Disney, R.H.L. The puparium is oval, pointed at ends (because the larval extremities remain relatively unchanged). These affected bees are often host to more than one fly larva, and some individuals have been found to contain 12 phorid larvae.Other species, especially those of the giant genus Phorid flies also represent a new and hopeful means by which to control In January 2012, a researcher discovered larvae in the test tube of a dead honey bee believed to have been affected by A few cases of phorid flies opportunistically causing human Brown, B.V. 2012: Small size no protection for acrobat ants: world's smallest fly is a parasitic phorid (Diptera: Phoridae). Traditionally, phorids were classified into six subfamilies: Phorinae, Aenigmatiinae, Metopininae (including tribes Beckerinini and Metopinini), Alamirinae, Termitoxeniinae, and Thaumatoxeninae. The other veins (branches of the medius) are weaker and usually follow a diagonal course and are often parallel to each other. The first instar is metapneustic, later instars are amphipneustic. The Phoridae are a family of small, hump-backed flies resembling fruit flies.
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