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sultan of egypt and syria

Ayyubi, Salah Ad-Din Al- 1138-1193. The teenaged caliph, who had been the puppet of his powerful Egyptian viziers, now had little choice but to accept the Syrians as the ruling force in Egypt, with Shirkuh as his new vizier.Saladin now had the reputation of a young man of promise, but it was at this point that chance intervened, in the form of three advantageous deaths, to greatly widen the stage for his ambitions. The 200 captured knights of the military orders—Templars and Hospitallers—were even less fortunate. His reign was marked by a centralization of autocratic power in the Ahmad was in al-Karak at the time of Abu Bakr's execution and Qawsun called on him to report to Cairo, ostensibly to assume the sultanate.

But before a showdown could occur Nur al-Din himself died in 1174, leaving his 11-year-old son, al-Salih, as heir, and leaving also a power vacuum into which Saladin was bound to move.But Saladin was conscious of the proprieties, and waited for a suitable pretext. Saladin : Sultan of Egypt and Syria Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item . Ayyūbī, Salāḥ al-Dīn, sultano d' Egitto e di Siria, 1137-1193 . Saladin seized the opportunity to announce the end of the Fatimid dynasty and the restoration of the spiritual authority of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad.By any measure, the 33-year-old Saladin, now outright ruler of Egypt, was as powerful as his nominal suzerain, the atabeg Nur al-Din in Damascus. Saladin moved up forces to relieve the siege, but with fresh troops arriving daily from Europe, the Crusaders proved too strong.They were further reinforced by the arrival, in the spring of 1191, of large contingents under King Philip of France and King Richard of England. Within a few decades, the Muslim lands slipped back into division, dynastic quarreling and political weakness. Most impressive was Saladin's role during the second campaign, when Shirkuh left him in command of Alexandria. He wanted to be accepted as the leader of Muslim forces against the Franks and to be anointed in this role by the caliph. Copyright © 2004-2015 Aramco Services Company. Saladin could not deal the Franks a decisive blow as long as they stayed on the coast, and Richard did not have the manpower, the money or the unity within his command to reconquer the hinterland. It led to divisions among the Syrian Mamluk leadership, with the governors of Qawsun's position in Egypt was precarious and he was ultimately arrested, along with Altunbugha, in Alexandria. Kurdish brothers made their way to Mesopotamia from their hometown near Tiflis, in what is today the Republic of Georgia. He achieved this, moreover, at least as much by political skill and personal charisma as by force of arms. His friend and biographer Ibn Shaddad wrote, "I have heard people say that they would like to ransom those dear to them with their own lives, but this has usually been a figure of speech, except on the day of Aleppo itself negotiated a surrender in 1183, and in 1186 he struck a truce with the Mosulis by which Mosul accepted Saladin's authority and promised to send troops to serve under his command against the Franks.Saladin was now ready to confront the Crusaders. Under the banner of Guy de Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, a Frankish force of some 30,000 knights and infantry set out to relieve the siege. Richard was also receiving increasingly urgent messages about what was happening to his throne in England, and opened negotiations with Saladin. These were the shock troops of the Crusades; the Muslims feared them for their fighting ability, disliked them for their fanaticism and knew that no one would ransom them. He respected the Crusaders as warriors, and because they were fighting for an ideal, but he never wavered in his conviction that his life work was to expel these foreigners from "the House of Islam. Its massive citadel was too strong to assault by force, and the obdurate Zangids proved impervious to Saladin's attempts at diplomacy.Saladin now faced a difficult dilemma. Each sought to extend its influence there, or at least prevent the other from achieving a commanding position.Nur al-Din's three expeditions to Egypt between 1164 and 1168 were commanded by Saladin's uncle Shirkuh, with Saladin going along as one of his lieutenants. First, Shirkuh died, and Saladin was chosen to succeed him as vizier. As an adult he was described as short and dark. Saladin's treatment of the city's Christians was in marked contrast to the indiscriminate slaughter of Muslims that had occurred when the Crusaders first took the city 88 years previously.This was the high point of Saladin's career, but it was also the moment when he made his worst strategic error. To the Zangid loyalists, Saladin was not only an ungrateful upstart, but an ungrateful Kurdish upstart who threatened the monopoly of power that the Turks enjoyed. share. Muslim battlefield tactics therefore sought to use the advantages of mobility—giving way before the heavy Frankish charges, then returning to harass the knights as they regrouped, hoping to draw them out of their tight formations.

On the eve of his departure from Tikrit to take up service with Zangi, a son was born to Ayyub. The tactic worked.

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