Bare soil and deserts will appear bright cyan in the image since it much more reflective in Band I3 and M11 than Band M3. JPSS-1 (NOAA-20) was launched on November 18, 2017, and JPSS-2 is scheduled to launch in 2021.The VIIRS sensor was designed to extend and improve upon the series of measurements initiated by its predecessors, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS).
This issue is discussed in the recent JGR paper by Cao et al. However, étendue may not decrease and radiant flux may not increase and, therefore, basic radiance may not increase.
Spectral radiance is the radiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The VIIRS sensor has 5 high-resolution imagery channels (I-bands) that have 32 detectors (32 rows of pixels per scan), with twice the resolution of the M-bands and the DNB, that span the wavelengths from 0.640 µm to 11.45 µm. VIIRS Data Basics • VIIRS is a scanning radiometer – As the satellite orbits the Earth, VIIRS scans a swath that is ~3040 km wide (the cross-track direction). Sediments in water appear dark red.This combination is most useful for distinguishing burn scars from naturally low vegetation or bare soil and enhancing floods.
The images are natural-looking images of land surface, oceanic and atmospheric features. Thick ice and snow appear vivid sky blue, while small ice crystals in high-level clouds will also appear blueish, and water clouds will appear white. MODIS provided a new standard in calibrated, science-quality, coarse-resolution satellite observations which will continue with VIIRS. For scripted/automatic downloads please see instructions at Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Corrected Reflectance Imagery is produced in near real-time (NRT), providing continuity from the MODIS Corrected Reflectance imagery which was developed to provide natural looking images. In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area. The unit is W/(cm^2 -sr).
Naturally the units of this band cannot be given as a solar reflectance factor, but instead the radiance is provided: >>> print global_data ['DNB']. In those cases, the values in the file are the actual radiance without a need for any calculations. 2013 (Suomi NPP special issue).The DNB radiance at night has very small values with a number in the order of magnitude of 10^-9. Thick ice and snow appear vivid red (or dark pink), while small ice crystals in high-level clouds will appear pinkish. Clouds comprised of small water droplets scatter light equally in both the visible and the SWIR and will appear white. This band combination is good for distinguishing liquid water from frozen water, for example, clouds over snow, ice cloud versus water cloud; or floods from dense vegetation. In that context, the land science of VIIRS will build and expand on the heritage of land science from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and EOS MODIS. By contrast the Surface Reflectance product is available in near real-time and as a standard product. Snow and ice are very reflective in the visible part of the spectrum (Band M3), and very absorbent in Bands I3 and M11 (short-wave infrared, or SWIR). Assigning that band to green means even the smallest hint of vegetation will appear bright green in the image.
The VIIRS Corrected Reflectance imagery is only produced in near real-time. VIIRS data are used to measure cloud and aerosol properties, ocean color, sea and land surface temperature, ice motion and temperature, fires, and Earth’s albedo.
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